Tag Archives: deforestation

Report: Three Parallel Rivers plagued by unregulated mining

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Image: Greenpeace

One of Yunnan’s most famous natural landscapes is under threat from unsupervised mining, according to a new report. A study published by non-governmental environmental organization Greenpeace claims industrial activity in the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas is seriously damaging China’s most biodiverse region.

The report, issued July 27, contends that through both satellite and on-the-ground research, it is clear mining operations in northwest Yunnan are leading to deforestation, water pollution and habitat loss. Of particular concern, says Greenpeace, is the destruction of what are termed ‘intact forest landscapes’ (IFL) — tracts of “existing forests which show no signs of significant human activity [that] are able to maintain their native biodiversity”.

These green belts are extremely rare in China, comprising less than four percent of the country’s total forest cover. The most complete IFL’s sit clustered in high alpine regions in Sichuan, Tibet and Yunnan, and are known to harbor the vast majority of China’s endemic plant and animal species. However, this biodiversity — especially in Yunnan — is increasingly under threat.

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Image: Wikipedia

Greenpeace researchers found that “over the past 13 years, a total of 490,000 hectares of IFL in China have been lost”. More than half of the lost forest is in northwest Yunnan, where the upper reaches of the Salween, Mekong and Yangtze rivers flow side by side for 300 kilometers through spectacular mountain scenery. The area — which covers 1.7 million hectares — was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003.

Despite its protected status, the sprawling wilderness and surrounding buffer zones are home to widespread and unregulated mining. Over the course of their research, Greenpeace representatives found two-dozen illegal mines in a region containing half of China’s total fish and animal species, reporting:

In total we uncovered 24 mines operating in the IFL region, three of which were in the UNESCO site. It also seems likely that some of the mines never applied for the obligatory environmental impact assessment before they began operations, presumably because they knew it would be refused.

The environmental group ends its report with the demand that the “Yunnan government immediately halt all mining operations” in the region. And while stringent environmental enforcement is not particularly strong in the province, there is hope increased national supervision will help. Earlier this year Beijing announced mining and hydroelectric development would be suspended along the Nu river — the westernmost of the Three Parallel Rivers — in favor of tourism industry development. Perhaps this will serve as a model for the entire region.

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Filed under China, Mekong River, SLIDER, Sustainability and Resource Management, Yunnan Province

Kunming-based think tank fighting Myanmar forest loss

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A new project promoting agroforestry as a sustainable alternative to current farming practices in the uplands of Myanmar is underway. Led by the World Agroforestry Centre‘s East and Central Asia regional program, and approved by the country’s Minister of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MECF), the undertaking aims to reforest mountainous landscapes prone to degradation.

The project will initially be carried out in the Burmese states of Shan and Chin on a relatively small scale of six hectares. When made viable both environmentally and economically, Naypyidaw has pledged to expand the program — and around the capital has already begun to do so — as Myanmar is in dire need of workable solutions addressing its growing forest loss.

At the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), farming practices are seen as part of the problem.Shifting cultivation involves clearing forest for the cultivation of crops. After a cropping period that can be as short as one or two years, the land is fallowed for up to ten, allowing the forest to grow back. Not intrinsically bad, shifting cultivation is increasingly rare due to the shrinking availability of land, as well as current government policies.

Pressed to grow more food, villagers now usually clear forest permanently, often for monoculture plantations of sugarcane or rubber. Allowing no natural regeneration and depriving the landscape of a diversity of trees, this change of land use harms livelihoods and ecosystems.

A promising and healthy alternative, according to ICRAF reports, is the deliberate reintegration of trees that positively interact with crops and livestock on and around farms. “Agroforestry is the ideal solution for uplands,” explains Dr Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt, lead researcher for the ICRAF project. “Agroforestry can drastically reduce the need for expensive chemical fertilizers and noxious pesticides while boosting yields and diversifying income sources.”

Communities involved with the initiative have provided sites on which to demonstrate the new agroforestry methods. The researchers hope to incorporate trees that fertilize the soil — such as Himalayan Alder — and to jointly search with villagers for alternative income sources. This will provide a feedback loop between scientists, non-government organizations and farmers, with the three groups learning and adjusting together. The work is largely funded with a grant by international donor consortium Livelihoods and Food Security Trust Fund.

Dr Peter Mortimer, a soil scientist at ICRAF, speaking of support received from MECF, said, “Having strong backing on all levels is so important for this type of project, and we have a feeling that Myanmar and its people will prove great partners and an example for similar projects elsewhere.” While heavy flooding in Chin State has complicated progress, trees are now ready to be planted and the first cropping cycle will coincide with the start of the next wet season.

This article written by Patrick Scally was originally posted here on the GoKunming website.

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Filed under Agriculture, Current Events, Economic development, Environment and sustainability, Myanmar/Burma, SLIDER, Sustainability and Resource Management